All the village industries have been grouped into seven major categories as follows:
- Mineral- based industry,
- Forest- based industry,
- Agro- based industry,
- Polymer and chemical- based industry,
- Engineering and non-conventional industry,
- Textile industry (including Khadi), and
- Service industry.
For understanding the meaning of these industries deeply, I’ll give some description of each point.
- Mineral- based industry: Minerals industries are geological materials which are mined for their commercial value, which are not fuel (fuel minerals or mineral fuels) and are not sources of metals (metallic minerals). They are used in their natural state or after beneficiation either as raw materials or as additives in a wide range of applications.
List of some industrial minarals are Aggregates, Alunite, Asbestos, Asphale, Ball clays, Baryte, Bentonite, Borates, Brines, Carbonatites, Corundum, Diamond etc.
- Forest- based Industry: Forest based industry though not much fossil evidence is available; studies indicate that extensive forest under tropical range existed in the tertiary period in parts of Bangladesh. Glutaxylon, Dipterocarpoxylon, Cynometroxylon fossils, all from Miocene beds, discovered in adjacent areas have affinities with species found today in tropical conditions.
- Agro- based Industry: Bangladesh is primarily an agrarian economy. Agriculture is the single largest producing sector of economy since it comprises about 30% of the country’s GDP and employing around 60% of the total labor force. The performance of this sector has an overwhelming impact on major macroeconomic objectives like employment generation, poverty alleviation, human resources development and food security. Agricultural holdings in Bangladesh are generally small. Through Cooperatives the use of modern machinery is gradually gaining popularity. Rice, Jute, Sugarcane, Potato, Pulses, Wheat, Tea and Tobacco are the principal crops. The crop sub-sector dominates the agriculture sector contributing about 72% of total production. Fisheries, livestock and forestry sub-sectors are 10.33%, 10.11% and 7.33% respectively.
- Polymer and Chemical- based Industry: While many of the products from the industry, such as detergents, soaps and perfumes, are purchased directly by the consumer, 70% of chemicals manufactured are used to make products by other industries including other branches of the chemical industry itself. The industry uses a wide range of raw materials, from air and minerals to oil. With increasing competition worldwide, innovation remains crucial in finding new ways for the industry to satisfy its increasingly sophisticated, demanding and environmentally-conscious consumers. The products of the chemical industry can be divided into three categories: Basic chemicals, Specialty chemicals, and Consumer chemicals.
- Textile Industry (Including Khadi): The textile industry or apparel industry is primarily concerned with the design and production of yarn, cloth, clothing, and their distribution. The raw material may be natural or synthetic using products of the chemical industry.
The textile and clothing (T&C) industries provide the single source of economic growth in Bangladesh’s rapidly developing economy. Exports of textiles and garments are the principal source of foreign exchange earnings. Agriculture for domestic consumption is Bangladesh’s largest employment sector. By 2002 exports of textiles, clothing, and ready-made garments (RMG) accounted for 77% of Bangladesh’s total merchandise exports. By 2013, about 4 million people, mostly women, worked in Bangladesh’s $19 billion-a-year industry, export-oriented ready-made garment (RMG) industry. Bangladesh is second only to China, the world’s second-largest apparel exporter of western brands. Sixty percent of the export contracts of western brands are with European buyers and about forty percent with American buyers. Only 5% of textile factories are owned by foreign investors, with most of the production being controlled by local investors.
Bangladesh’s textile industry has been part of the trade versus aid debate. The encouragement of the garment industry of Bangladesh as an open trade regime is argued to be a much more effective form of assistance than foreign aid. Tools such as quotas through the WTO Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC) and Everything but Arms (EBA) and the US 2009 Tariff Relief Assistance in the global clothing market have benefited entrepreneurs in Bangladesh’s ready-made garments (RMG) industry. Bangladesh, with a population of about 156 million, is among the most densely populated countries in the world. In 2012 the textile industry accounted for 45% of all industrial employment in the country yet only contributed 5% of the Bangladesh’s total national income.
- Service Industry: A business that does work for a customer, and occasionally provides goods, but is not involved in manufacturing. The service industries (More formally termed: ‘tertiary sector of industry‘ by economists) involve the provision of services to businesses as well as final consumers. Such, therefore, include accounting, tradesman ship (like mechanic or plumber services), computer services, restaurants, tourism, etc