Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world and which continues to struggle to catch up with the rest of the developed countries. This is however more difficult in practice although many efforts, both national and international are being made in order to help the Bangladesh economy to catch up. For those who care Bangladesh is in a continuous fight against the many natural disasters that hit it on a regular basis and which might have disastrous effects on the already fragile economy. There are many things however that can be exploited from an economical point of view in order to redress the Bangladesh poverty rate, which is among the highest in the world.
Fishing is one of the areas in agriculture that is being intensively used to improve the Bangladesh economy. Bangladesh fishing is obviously possible thanks to the geographical position of the country. Bangladesh has a littoral border with the Indian Ocean, which is considered a very rich source of resources, especially when it comes to the Bay of Bengal. The exclusive economic maritime zone that belongs to Bangladesh spread in about 110,000 square km, representing three quarters of the total surface of the country.
Bangladesh fishing has thus the potential to be one of the saving areas of the economy and has been for many years now the main protein source in the diet of the people in this country. It is estimated that in 1970, Bangladesh fishing accounted for 6% of the GDP of the country. However, serious investment in Bangladesh fishing began in the late 1980s when the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank invested in fishing, especially in the shrimp aquaculture as this type of fish can be found in the Bangladeshi waters and is extensively captured, although though unsophisticated methods, often also inefficient.
Overall Fisheries Industry Analysis
History and General Overview:
The origin and development of aquaculture practices in Bangladesh are not well documented; historically the country’s natural water bodies were stocked during the monsoon season through natural spawning. Fish farming had been a traditional practice dating back several centuries to when the country was ruled by Hindu kings. Many of the kings used to create ponds and tanks for drinking, bathing and sometimes for small-scale irrigation, these ponds and tanks were also used for rearing fish although more from a recreation aspect than for any commercial purpose.
In Bangladesh, aquaculture production systems are mainly extensive and extended extensive, with some semi-intensive and in very few cases intensive systems. Although the culture fishery contributes over 55 percent of inland fish production, it covers only about 11percent of the total inland water resources. But the annual production are still low, 2 609 kg/ha for ponds and ditches, 780 kg/ha for oxbow lakes and 565 kg/ha for coastal aquaculture, although the potentialities are much higher. Nevertheless, over last ten years, yield from closed water aquaculture has been increasing steadily.
Indigenous freshwater carps (22 percent) and exotic carps (10 percent) from both the farming and capture sectors are the primary contributors to total production (Azim et al., 2002); other freshwater fish include catfish, snakeheads and small indigenous species. However, carp polyculture in ponds is more productive, capital intensive and is a more profitable activity when compared to the other culture systems.
|Sector||Annual yield(kg/ha)||Operating cost(US$/ha)||Net profit(US$/ha)|
|Carp polyculture||4 000||1 840||2 241|
|Tilapia monoculture||4 050||453||1 420|
|Integrated rice-fish culture||1 440||453||400|
Structure: Comparison of the profitability between different types of aquaculture production systems in Bangladesh (ICLARM, 2002)
Feed and labor comprise the two most important components of the total operating cost for most culture systems in Bangladesh, each accounting for approximately 20 percent and 17 percent, respectively of the total operating costs.
The species cultured in the coastal regions of Bangladesh include mainly tiger prawn but also prawn, brown shrimp, white shrimp, mud crab, giant sea perch and yellow tail mullet.
Fish Production and Resource Conservation Campaign:
Total fish production by Bangladesh in 2003 amounted to 2 102 026 tonnes (DoF, 2005) of which 914 752 tonnes or 43.5 percent was produced by the aquaculture sector. Production from ponds and ditches totaled 795 810 tonnes, coastal aquaculture (shrimp and fish ponds) 114 660 tonnes, Kaptai lake 7 238 tonnes and from oxbow lakes 4 282 tonnes (DoF, 2005). Aquaculture production in Bangladesh has increased 6–8 percent per annum during the period 1991–2002 (Ahmed, 2003).
The graph below shows total aquaculture production in Bangladesh according to FAO statistics:
(Source: FAO Fishery Statistics, Aquaculture productionCampaign for boosting fish production and resource conservation fish week is being observed usually in between July and September every year. Raising awareness of the people through the country for the conservation and management of fisheries resources is also an objective of this campaign. It is a national program and is inaugurated by the Honorable Prime Minister of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh.
FISHERIES RESOURCES INFORMATION ON BANGLADESH
|(a)||Closed Water Body (Culture based)||6,78,724 ha.|
|i) Pond & Ditches :||3,71,309 ha.|
|ii) Oxbow lake :||5,488 ha|
|iii) Shrimp Farm :||2,76,492 ha|
|(b)||Open Water Body (Capture based)||40,24,934 ha|
|i) River & Estuaries (without Sundarban)||8,53,863 ha|
|ii) Beel||1,14,161 ha|
|iii) Kaptai Lake||68,800 ha|
|iv) Flood Plain :||28,10,410 ha|
|i) Territorial Water :||2,680 sq. n. miles|
|ii) Exclusive Economic Zone :||41,040 sq. n. miles|
|iii) Continental Shelf||24,800 sq. n. miles|
|iv) Coast line :||710 km.|
|2.||Fish Production||30,61,687 mt.|
|i) Open Water (capture) :||10,54,585 mt.|
|ii) Closed Water (Culture) :||14,60,769 mt.|
|iii) Marine Fisheries||5,46,333 mt.|
|3.||(a)||Export of Fish & Fish Products|
|i) Quantity||96,469 ton.|
|ii) Value (BDT)||4603.83 crore|
|iii) Contribution to export earning :||2.73%|
|(b)||No. of Fish Processing Plants :||162|
|(c)||No. of EU aooroved Plants :||74|
|4.||Contribution in GDP||4.43%|
|i) Per capita Annual Fish Intake :||18.94 kg.|
|ii) Annual Total Fish Needed :||20.44 lakh mt.|
|iii) Contribution in Animal Protein supply :||60% (App.)|
|i) Fish hatchery :||921 (Govt. No 76)|
|ii) No. of Fish Nursery :||921 (Govt. No.76)|
|iii) Fingerling Production :||82,038 lakh|
|iv) Natural Fish Fry Collection :||24370 kg.|
|i) Bagda Hatchery :||60 (Govt. no.2)|
|ii) Galda Hatchery :||80 (Govt.no. 17)|
|iii) Galda PL Production (Pieces) :||12,000lakh|
|iv) Bagda PL Production (Pieces):||59,500 lakh|
|8.||Other Public Sector Fisheries Infrastructure (No.)|
|i) Fish/Shrimp Training Center :||06|
|v) Shrimp Demonstration Farm :||02|
|vi) Fish Landing Center :||09|
|vi) Shrimp Landing & Service Center :||20|
|9.||Marine Fishing Unit (No.)|
|i) Deep Sea Fishing Trawlers :||186|
|ii) Artisanal Mechanized Boats :||21,016|
|iii) Artisanal Non-mechanized Boats :||22,120|
|10.||Fish Species (No.)|
|i) Freshwater Fish Species :||260|
|ii) Exotic Fish Species :||12|
|iii) Freshwater Prawn Species :||24|
|iv) Marine Fish Species :||475|
|v) Marine Shrimp Species||36|
Farming Systems Distribution and Characteristics:
Table :Freshwater pond farming systems as defined in the context of Bangladesh
|Farming systems||Farming practices|
|a)||Extensive||Stocking mainly with the three Indian major carp species, no fertilisation and feeding.|
|b)||Extended extensive||Stocking mainly with the three Indian major and three exotic (silver, common and grass) carps, irregular use of fertilisation (mostly cow dung) but without feeding. Silver barb is also occasionally stocked.|
|d)||Intensive||Monoculture of striped catfish. Regular feeding with commercially manufactured pelleted diet.|
Source: Modified from Hasan (2001b)
There are an estimated 1.3 million fish ponds in the country, covering an area of 0.151 million ha, of which 55.30 percent is cultured, 28.52 percent is culturable and 16.18 percent is unused. In 2002 the percentage of production from the above three systems was 72.09, 20.01 and 7.90 respectively (BBS, 2002). In general the size of fish ponds varies between 0.020 and 20 ha with an average of 0.30 ha. In Bangladesh, the highest number of ponds exists in the Barisal district (12.11percent), followed by Comilla (9.36 percent), Sylhet (9.10 percent), Chittagong (8.02 percent) and Noakhali (7.75 percent) (BBS, 2002).
Historically people depended mainly on natural waters for supplies of fish; but as a result of declining catches of wild fish due to an increased fishing effort by the growing population as well as environmental degradation, people began to culture fish in enclosed waters. The polyculture of major and exotic carps and monoculture of striped catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus), Nile tilapia and Java barb (Barbonymus gonionotus) and to some extent catfish (Clarias batrachus) are the most widely practiced culture system in Bangladesh. Three Indian major carps namely, Labeo rohita, Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala and one exotic carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix now account for more than 78 percent of total pond production (ICLARM, 2002). However, carp polyculture at the individual small holder level has the greatest potential for expansion since it can, through the implementation of more intensive culture systems including the application of fertilisers, use of supplemental feeding and improved management practices (Gupta et al., 1999), provide a significant potential increase in income, by as much as 57 percent or US$ 717/ha, this is more than the other culture practices in use (DoF, 2003). At present annual average fish production using pond culture is 2 609 kg/ha (DoF, 2005).
Fish culture in cages
Cage culture was introduced into Bangladesh in the late 1970s on an experimental basis, a series of experiments were conducted at the Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) (Hasan et al., 1982, Ahmed et al., 1984 and Ahmed et al., 1997) which demonstrated the potential of cage aquaculture. The Department of Fisheries conducted a cage culture project in Kaptai lake during 1985–86 achieving
Shrimp farming in the south and southeastern coastal belt of Bangladesh began in the early 1970s. From less than 20 000 ha of brackishwater ponds in 1980, the area under cultivation expanded to approximately 140 000 ha by 1995 (Wahab, 2003). The last complete survey to estimate the total area under shrimp cultivation was carried out in 1993–94; it has not been updated since then. DoF (2005) estimated that the total area under farming has expanded to 203 071 ha in 2003–2004. The major shrimp producing districts are Bagerhat, Satkhira, Pirojpur, Khulan, Cox’s Bazar and Chittagong, recently farmers especially in the Bagerhat and Pirojpur districts have begun shrimp farming in their paddy fields. Traditionally shrimp farming began by trapping tidal waters in nearby coastal enclosures known as ‘gher’ where no feed, fertilisers or other inputs were applied, with an increasing demand from both national and international markets farmers started to switch over into improved extensive and semi-intensive systems.
Semi intensive farming began in 1993 in the Cox’s Bazar region, with this system ponds were stocked with 10–35 post larvae (PL)/m2 using supplemental pellet feed but without reservoir tanks. The first outbreak of a viral epidemic in shrimp farms occurred in 1994 in semi intensive farms in the Cox’s Bazar region (Larkins, 1995; Karim and Stellwagen, 1998). In 1996 it was discovered to have spread to other coastal districts affecting extensive shrimp farms (Karim and Stellwagen, 1998). In 2001, the disease once again caused the collapse of shrimp production in both the Cox’s Bazar and Khulna regions, the disease has not yet been completely eradicated and can still cause havoc for shrimp producers.
Integrated fish farming
The integration of aquaculture with duck and chicken production was begun experimentally at the BFRI, Mymensingh producing some promising results. The project demonstrated that 500 khaki Campbell ducks can be profitably raised on a 1 ha carp pond while also producing 4.5 tonnes/ha of fish without any additional need for supplementary feed or fertiliser for the fish. The most promising integrated farming in Bangladesh however, is rice fish culture, Ameen (1987) reported on the technique from many parts of Bangladesh. Traditionally one or more sump pond(s) are constructed at the lowest corner of the paddy field where fish accumulate as the water level reduces, thus fish are harvested from the sump without any additional stocking or management practices being required. In an experiment, Islam and Ahmed (1982) obtained 346 kg fish in 4 months by stocking minor carp, catfish, climbing perch and common carp in a rice field, on the other hand, Ameen (1987) reported an example where approximately 457 kg fish/ha and 6 kg prawn/ha were harvested in 131–175 days.
Fish culture in ox-bow lakes
The most successful example of culture based fisheries has been accomplished in oxbow lakes located in Southwest Bangladesh (Hasan and Middendrop, 1998, Hasan, 2001a). There are approximately 600 oxbow lakes in Bangladesh with an estimated water area of 5 488 ha (DoF, 2003). Most of these oxbow lakes are located in five districts of southwest Bangladesh (Khulna division: Jessore, Jhinaidah, Chuadanga and Kushtia districts and Dhaka division: Faridpur district). Twenty-three of these lakes
Fisheries Sector’s Prospects and Potentials:
- National Contribution
Fisheries sector contributed 4.43% to national GDP and 22.21% to the agricultural GDP and 2.73% to foreign exchange earnings by exporting fish fish products in 2010-11. Fish provides 60% of national animal protein consumption. Fisheries sector also plays an important role in rural employment generation and poverty alleviation.
- Source of Fish Production
There are three categories of major fisheries resources, these are-
- Inland Capture (34%)
- Inland Culture (48%)
- Marine Capture (18%)
- Inland Fisheries
Inland fisheries comprises of rivers, ponds, estuaries, beels, floodplains, haors, baors, brackish water etc. There are 260 fish and 24 prawn species in inland fresh water in the country. In early sixties inland fisheries contributed about 90% of total fish production of the country. Fish production from aquaculture has increased to a great extent but open water fish production is in slow progress. Now only about 34% of total fish production comes from inland open water.
- Marine Fisheries
The Bay of Bengal is situated in the South of Bangladesh. There is a total of 166,000 sq. km. water area including Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Fishing is only confined within 200-meter depth. About 158 trawlers, 45,377 mechanized and non-mechanized boats are engaged in fishing. Pelagic and deep-sea resources are still untapped. In the year 2010-11 total fish production from Marine source was 5.46 lakh metric MT.
Recently Bangladesh has got the right to access 1.00 lakh sq. kilometer water area in Bay of Bengal through International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) by the visionary and pragmatic leadership of Honorable Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina. DoF has planned to assess the fisheries resources in the Bay of Bengal for maximum sustainable yield. A research vessel is under process of procurement to conduct appropriate stock assessment. Vessel Tracking Monitoring System will also be developed.
Last 5 years fish production is shown in the following table
|Year||Source-wise production (MT)||Total|
- Fish production
In 2010-11 the total fish production is 30.62 lakh Metric Ton (MT). Average annual growth rate of fish production in last 3 years is 6.11%. The Production from closed water bodies is increasing very sharply due to dissemination of adaptive technologies and need-based extension services rendered by DoF.
Major group wise contribution in fish production (2010-2011):
There are 260 freshwater and 475 marine fish species in the country. About 12 exotic species are being cultured in the country.
National Fisheries Policy
A national fisheries policy has been adopted to make the aquaculture and fisheries management activities environment friendly and sustainable. The policy has been formulated aiming at the primary objective of increasing fish production through optimum utilization of the available resources. In this policy a separate chapter containing shrimp culture and export guideline has been incorporated. National shrimp policy rule is under consideration of the government employment generation and poverty alleviation have also been given importance in fisheries policy. National Fisheries Strategy has been developed and approved by the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock in 2006 on the basis of National Fisheries Policy. The Fisheries strategy comprises of 8 sub-strategies and action plan.
- Annual Development Program
In addition to the normal activities of the DoF several development projects are being implemented aiming at boosting up fish production and conservation of fisheries resources. In 2010-2011 a total of 25 investment projects 2 programs and 4 technical assistance Project has been in implementation. technical assistance projects are being implemented. Through the development activities habitat restoration, conservation of natural resources, community based resource management, human resource development, and alternate income generating activities etc. is implementing in this sector.
- website for Fisheries
For quick and update information about DoF and aquaculture technologies , a fisheries website (www.fisheries.gov.bd) is running. To extend e-Extension services up to field level e–Extension program under Access to Information (A2I) is running in 10 upazilas. DoF has already developed a Software by using of which fish farmers can get the advice for modern aquaculture
- Aquaculture Practices
- i) Freshwater Aquaculture:Indian major carps and exotic carps are largely cultured in the country. Culture practices are mainly improved-extensive and semi-intensive. Beside Carp aquaculture, monoculture of Thi Pungus, Tilapia, Shorputi, Thai Koi are also practiced. Average fish production in the ponds is 3285 kg/ha/year. Freshwater prawn (m.rosenbergii) is also cultured along with carps in some areas of the country.
- ii) Brackish Water Aquaculture: It is widespread in Satkhira, Khulna, Cox’s Bazar and Bagerhat District. Tiger Shrimp p. monodon and giant prawn M. rosenbergii are the species of shellfish cultured in those areas. M. rosenbergii is largely cultured in southwest region of the country. The total production of shrimp and prawn in 2010-2011 was about 2.4 lakh MT.
iii) Fish and shrimp Hatchery: Fish hatchery especially carp hatchery started to come up in late seventies. At present there are 845 private nurseries, 76 Government fish Hatcheries and 124 Government fish seed multiplication farms in the country.
A total of 6,29,175.53kg spawn was produced from private and Government Hatcheries in the year 2011. Collection of fish seed from natural grounds has increased to about 4370 kg. In 2010-11 there were about 60 P.monodon (Bagda) Hatcheries and 80 M.rosenbergii (Galda) Hatcheries. About 59,500 lakh bagda post larva (PL) and about 12,000 lakh golda post larvae (PL) were produced in these hatcheries. almost all Bagda Hatcheries are located in Cox’s Bazar region, but major culture grounds are situated in southwest region of Bangladesh.
- Open water management
- i) Fisheries Legislation: For fisheries resource conservation, management and maintenant and maintenance of quality of the fish and fish products the following major ordinances and rules are being enforced.
- Tank Improvement Act, 1939
2. Fish Protection & Conservation Act,1950 (amended in 1995)
3. The protection and Conservation of Fish Rules, 1985 (amended in 2008)
- The fish & fish Products (Inspection & Quality Control) Ordinance, 1983.
- The fish & fish Products (Inspection & Quality Control) Rule, 1997(amended in 2008)
- The Marine Fisheries Ordinance, 1983
7. The Marine Fisheries Rules, 1983
8. Shrimp Culture Avikor Act, 1992
- Shrimp Culture Avikor Rules, 1993
- Fish Feed and Animal Feed Act, 2010; and Fish feed Regulation, 2011.
11.Fish Hatchery Act, 2010; and Fish Hatchery Regulation, 2011.
- ii) Hilsa Fishery Management: Hilsa (Shad) is an important diadromous fish in the South and south-East Asia especially in Bangladesh. It is considered as national fish in the country and contributes to the national economy, employment and export. Hilsa has the highest contribution in the country’s fish production as the single fish species. More than 11% of the country’s fish production comes from Hilsa. In 2010-11 Hilsa production was 3.40 lakh MT, which values around10,000 crore taka. DoF has taken some steps to strengthen the on-going Hilsa management through jatka Conservation Project/Program like (1) to establish 5 Hilsa sanctuaries, (2) to arrange need based training to involve the hilsa fishers for effective intervention of alternation income generating activities, and (3) to support the hilsa fishers with 30 kg food grains/family/month during the ban periods for four months. A total of 20 thousand fishers in Hilsa sanctuary areas are being directly benefited through Alternate Income Generation Activities.
iii) Protection of Natural Breeding Ground Halda: DoF is restoring the natural Breeding habitats of the Halda river to protect natural breeding ground of Indian Major Carps. In 2012 the total natural collected spawn/hatchling is 1569kg.
- iv) Fishers ID Card: Government has decided to issue ID card to the fishers community of the country through a project under DoF. Through this development project database of genuine fishers will also be developed.
- v) Integrated Natural Resource Management: DoF is implementing integrated natural resource management system by local users contributors to conserving the biodiversity and livelihoods in the selected wetlands and floodplains in the padma-Jumna rivers delta region through a development project.
- vi) Fish Habitat Restoration: In 2011-12 total 970 water bodies (areas about 2,123ha) have been developed by 07 development projects under DoF. As a result additional 3,000 MT fish will be produced annually. In addition 450 hectare Modhumoti Baor has been excavated mechanically in this fiscal year. About 60 ha Hurasagar river will be re-excavated in the coming years.
The institutional framework:
The following institutional bodies are involved in aquaculture and fisheries in Bangladesh:
- Department of Fisheries (DoF) under the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock (MoFL) is the sole authority with administrative control over aquaculture in Bangladesh. The DoF is managed by a Director General and has two main sub-departments namely, inland and marine. The main responsibilities held by the DoF include planning, development, extension and training, DoF has six divisional offices, 64 district offices and 497 upazilla (sub-districts) offices and in addition it has 118 hatcheries and four training centers (Mazid, 2002).
- Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI) conducts and coordinates research and to some extent training.
- Bangladesh Rural Development Board is responsible for the fisheries component of integrated rural development.
- Land Administration and Land Reform Division is responsible for the leasing of public water bodies.
- Export Promotion Bureau is responsible for export of fisheries products, along with the Bangladesh Frozen Foods Exporters Association which is also involved in the export of frozen shrimp, fish and fish products.
- The country’s universities are responsible for higher level fisheries education.
- External Resource Division under the Ministry of Finance is responsible for external aid for aquaculture development.
- Bangladesh Krishi (Agriculture) Bank, Bangladesh Samabay (Co-operative) Bank and some other commercial banks are responsible for issuing credit to the aquaculture sector.
- Many of the national and international NGO’s provides credits to the fish farmers and as well as takes up projects for aquaculture extension and development.
- International organizations (DFID, Danida, NORAD, JICA, World Bank, IMF, ADB etc.) provide grants and credits for aquaculture development.
- Youth Development Training Centers, under the Ministry of Youth, deals with extension and the training of unemployed young people and fish farmers.
Market and Trade:
In general fish markets in Bangladesh are situated in both rural and urban areas, they tend to be unhygienic, unscientific, dirty and operate using weak management systems. Approximately 97 percent of the inland fish production is marketed internally for domestic consumption while the remaining 3 percent is exported (Hasan, 2001a).
A large number of people are involved in the fish marketing chain and include farmers, processors, traders, intermediaries, day laborers and transporters (DFID, 1997 and Kleih, 2001).
Four categories of markets are involved in the distribution of fish, these are: primary markets, secondary markets (assembly markets), higher secondary markets (wholesale markets) and central markets. Locally these steps in the chain are known as: Fisherman Nikary (collector), Chalani (transporter), Aratdars (wholesaler), Paiker (retailer) and consumer (Alam, 2002). The market chain defined for freshwater prawn from producer to consumer are the field workers, prawn traders, agents and processing companies (Ahmed et al. 2004). A fish farmer receives 56 percent of the price paid by the final consumer, in other words 44 percent of the retail price is taken by the various intermediaries (Alam, 2002).
The country’s main exportable product is frozen shrimp, other exported products include frozen fish, frozen frog, dry fish, salted fish, turtles, crabs, shark fins and fish maws (dried fish swim bladders) (DoF, 2003).
Of the total available fish and fishery products for export 30.06 percent is exported to USA, 48.51percent to European countries, 9.32 percent to Japan and the remainder to Thailand and Middle Eastern countries (Hossain, 2003).
Export of Fish & Fish Products:
There are162 fish processing plants in the country. Out of 162 plants European Commission has approved 74 plants. HACCP has already been introduced in fish processing establishments. Major importing countries are European countries, USA and Japan. About 98% of total fish products are exported to those countries. Remaining are exported to the countries in Southeast Asia and Middle East.
|Year||Source-wise production||Other fish products||Total|
|Quantity (MT)||Value (Crore Taka)||Quantity (MT)||Value(Crore Taka)||Value (Crore Taka)|
Major export items of fish products are raw shrimp block frozen, IQF shrimp and white fish, PUD and P&D shrimp block frozen, consumer pack of raw frozen shrimp, chilled & frozen Hilsa, dry, salted and dehydrated fish, live fish, eel fish & crab and a little quantity of value added fish and shrimp products. Production of Crab through fattening in 2010 was 7756 MT of which 634.7 MT was exported by earning Tk. 375.88 crore. DoF has three inspection and quality control stations located at khulna, chittagong and Dhaka facilitated with testing laboratories. DoF is entrusted with the responsibility to ensure the quality of the products as Competent Authority.
List of Fish of Bangladesh:
|Local Bangladesh name||Name in Bengali||Status||Common English name||Scientific Name||Picture|
|Artamim||আইড়/আরটামিম/আড়||Native||Long-whiskered catfish||Sperata aor|
|Along||এলং||Native||Bengal Barb||Megarasbora elanga|
|Arwari||আরওয়ারি||Native||Menoda catfish||Hemibagrus menoda|
|Baghair||বাগাইর/বাঘাইর||Native||Dwarf goonch||Bagarius bagarius|
|Baim||বাইম||Native||Zig-zag eel/Tire track eel||Mastacembelus armatus|
|Balichura||বালিচুরা||Native||Balitora minnow||Psilorhynchus balitora|
|Balichura||বালিচুরা||endemic||Rainbow minnow||Psilorhynchus gracilis|
|Bamush||বামুশ||Native||Bengal eel||Ophisternon bengalense|
|Bane-hara||বানেহারা||Native||Indian mottled eel||Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis|
|Bansh-pata/Debari||বানসপাটা/দেবারি||Native||Sind danio||Devario devario|
|Bansh-pata/Bati||বানসপাটা/বাটা||Native||Broad-mouthed mullet/Large-scaled mullet||Paramugil parmatus|
|Barali||বারালি / বোরালি||Native||Barred baril||Barilius barila|
|Baril/Joiya||বারিল/জইয়া||Native||Hamilton’s barila||Barilius bendelisis|
|Bata||বাটা||Native||B a t a||Labeo bata|
|Batasi||বাতাসি||Native||Indian potasi||Neotropius atherinoides|
|Bechi||বেচি||Native||Whitespot/Blue panchax||Aplocheilus panchax|
|Bele||বেলে||Native||Scribbled goby||Awaous grammepomus|
|Bele||বেলে||Native||Tank goby||Glossogobius giuris|
|Bhadi puti||ভাদিপুঁটি||Native||Pool barb||Puntius sophore|
|Bhangan||ভাঙান/ভাঙ্গান||Native||Boga labeo||Labeo boga|
|Bhol||ভোল||Native||Trout barb||Raiamas bola|
|Kuli/Bhut bele||কুলি/ভূতবেলে||Native||Dusky sleeper||Eleotris fusca|
|Bilchuri||বিলচুরি||Native||Mottled loach||Acanthocobitis botia|
|Borguni||বোরগুনি||Native||Jarbua terapon||Terapon jarbua|
|Bou/Rani||বৌমাছ/রানি||Native||Bengal loach||Botia dario|
|Bou mach||বৌমাছ/রানি||Questionable||Hora loach||Botia dayi|
|Bou mach||বৌমাছ/রানি||Native||Reticulate loach||Botia lohachata|
|Magor/Shing||মাগুর/শিংমাছ||Native||Indian torrent catfish||Amblyceps mangois|
|Gong Tengra||গংটেংরা||Native||Gagata gagata|
|Chondon Ilish||চন্দনা/চন্দনইলিশ||Native||Toli shad||Tenualosa toli|
|Chapila||চাপিলা||Native||Ganges River Gizzard Shad||Gonialosa manmina|
|Chapila||চাপিলা||Native||Indian River Shad||Gudusia chapra|
|Chebli||চেবলি||Native||Giant Danio||Devario aequipinnatus|
|Cheka||চেকা||Native||Squarehead Catfish||Chaca chaca|
|Chela||চেলা||Questionable||Silver razorbelly minnow||Salmostoma acinaces|
|Chela||চেলা||Native||Large razorbelly minnow||Salmostoma bacaila|
|Chela||চেলা||native||Finescale razorbelly minnow||Salmostoma phulo|
|Chenua||চেনুয়া||Native||Sisor Catfish||Sisor rabdophorus|
|Chep chela/Laubucha||চেপচেলা/লাউবুচা||Native||Indian Glass Barb||Chela laubuca|
|Chitol||চিতল||Native||Clown Knifefish||Chitala chitala|
|Foli/Chitol||ফলি||Native||Bronze featherback||Notopterus notopterus|
|Chuna||চুনা||Native||Honey gourami||Trichogaster chuna|
|Common carp||কমনকার্প||introduced||Common carp||Cyprinus carpio carpio|
|Dahuk||ডাহুক||Native||Boddart’s goggle-eyed goby||Boleophthalmus boddarti|
|Dahuk||ডাহুক||native||Walking goby||Scartelaos histophorus|
|Dari (fish)||ডারি||Native||Schistura scaturigina|
|Darkina||দারকিনা||Native||Flying barb||Esomus danricus|
|Darkina||দারকিনা||Native||Slender rasbora||Rasbora daniconius|
|Darkina||দারকিনা||Native||Gangetic scissortail rasbora||Rasbora rasbora|
|Dhal magor||ঢালমাগুর||Native||Glyptothorax telchitta|
|Ek thouta||একথৌতা||Questionable||Wrestling halfbeak||Dermogenys pusilla|
|Gagla||গাগলা||Native||Gagora catfish||Arius gagora|
|Gong magor||গংমাগুর||Native||Gray eel-catfish||Plotosus canius|
|Gong tengra||গংটেংরা||Native||Gagata cenia|
|Gong tengra||গংটেংরা||Native||Gogangra viridescens|
|Gong tengra||গংটেংরা||Native||Nangra nangra|
|Kabashi Tengra||গুলসা/গুলসা-টেংরা/কাবাশিটেংরা||Native||Gangetic mystus||Mystus cavasius|
|Ghor poi-ya||ঘরপোয়া||Native||Sucker head||Garra gotyla gotyla|
|Ghonia||ঘনিয়া||Native||Boggut labeo||Labeo boggut|
|Ghor poa||ঘরপোয়া||introduced||Garra annandalei|
|Ghora chela||ঘোড়াচেলা||Native||Securicula gora|
|Ghora mach||ঘোড়ামাছ||Native||Labeo dyocheilus|
|Gilipunti||গিলিপুঁটি||Native||Golden barb||Puntius gelius|
|Gobi (fish)||বেলে||Native||Apocryptes bato|
|Goti poa||গোটিপোয়া||Native||Largescale archerfish||Toxotes chatareus|
|Gozar||গজার||Native||Great snakehead||Channa marulius|
|Grass carp||গ্রাসকার্প||introduced||Grass carp||Ctenopharyngodon|
|Gura tengra||গুরাটেঙ্গরা||Native||Chandramara chandramara|
|Gutum||গুতুম||Native||Annandale loach||Lepidocephalichthys annandalei|
|Gutum||গুতুম||Native||Guntea loach||Lepidocephalichthys guntea|
|Ilish||ইলিশ||Native||Hilsa shad||Tenualosa ilisha|
|Kechhki||কাচকি||Native||Ganges river sprat||Corica soborna|
|Kechhki||কাচকি||Native||Yellowtail mullet||Sicamugil cascasia|
|Kajuli||কাজুলি||Native||Gangetic ailia||Ailia coila|
|Kajuli||কাজুলি||Native||Jamuna ailia||Ailiichthys punctata|
|Kakila||কাকিলা||Native||Freshwater garfish||Xenentodon cancila|
|Kalibaus||কালিবাউস||Native||Orange-fin labeo||Labeo calbasu|
|Kachon punti||কাচোনপুঁটি||Native||Rosy barb||Puntius conchonius|
|Kani pabda||কানিপাবদা||Native||Butter catfish||Ompok bimaculatus|
|Kani tengra||কানিটেংরা||Native||Glyptothorax cavia|
|Kani tengra||কানিটেংরা||Native||Painted catfish||Pseudolaguvia ribeiroi|
|Kani tengra||কানিটেংরা||Native||Pseudolaguvia shawi|
|Karati hangar||করাতিহাঙর||Native||Knifetooth sawfish||Anoxypristis cuspidata|
|Kathal pata||কাথালপাতা||Native||Pan sole||Brachirus pan|
|Kawai’in||কই||Native||Climbing perch||Anabas testudineus|
|Keti (fish)||কেটি||Native||Osteobrama cotio cotio|
|Khailsha||খৌলশা||Native||Banded gourami||Colisa fasciata|
|Kharu||খারু||Native||Rice-paddy eel||Pisodonophis boro|
|Koi||কৈ||Native||Climbing perch||Anabas testudineus|
|Koitor||কোইটুর||Native||Coitor croaker||Johnius coitor|
|Kuli (fish)||কুলি||Native||Duckbill sleeper||Butis butis|
|Kumirer khil||কুমিরেরখিল||Native||Ichthyocampus carce|
|Kumirer khil||কুমিরেরখিল||Native||Crocodile-tooth pipefish||Microphis cuncalus|
|Kumirer khil||কুমিরেরখিল||Native||Deocata pipefish||Microphis deocata|
|Kursha (fish)||কুরসা||Native||Kalabans||Sinilabeo dero|
|Kuta kanti||কুটিকানটি||Native||Conta catfish||Conta conta|
|Lal kholisha||লালখোলিশা||Native||Dwarf gourami||Colisa lalia|
|Lomba chanda||লম্বাচান্দা||Native||Elongate glass-perchlet||Chanda nama|
|Modhu pabda||মধুপাবদা||Native||Pabdah catfish||Ompok pabda|
|Magur||মাগুর||introduced||African catfish / North African catfish||Clarias gariepinus|
|Minor carp||Native||Crossocheilus latius|
|Mola punti||মলাপুঁটি||Native||Glass-barb||Puntius guganio|
|Mola||মলা||Native||Indian carplet||Amblypharyngodon microlepis|
|Mola||মলা||Native||Mola carplet||Amblypharyngodon mola|
|Muri bacha||মুরিবাচা||Native||Eutropiichthys murius|
|Muribacha||মুরিবাচা||Native||Garua Bachcha||Clupisoma garua|
|Napte koi||নাপটিকই||Native||Badis||Badis badis|
|Neftani||নেফটেনি||Native||Frail gourami||Ctenops nobilis|
|Nilotica||Nile tilapia||Oreochromis niloticus niloticus|
|Nodoi||নদয়||Native||Gangetic leaffish||Nandus nandus|
|Nuna bailla||নুনাবেলে||Native||Brachygobius nunus|
|Nuna-tengra||নুনাটেংরা||Native||Long whiskers catfish||Mystus gulio|
|Olive danio||Native||Danio dangila|
|Pabda catfish||পাবদা||Native||Pabo catfish||Ompok pabo|
|Panga||পাঙ্গা||Native||Java loach||Pangio oblonga|
|Pangas||পাঙ্গাস||Native||Yellowtail catfish||Pangasius pangasius|
|Pankal baim||পনকালবাইম||Native||Barred spiny eel||Macrognathus pancalus|
|Pathar chata||পাথরচাটা||Native||Barilius tileo|
|Phasa (fish)||ফাশা||Questionable||Gangetic hairfin anchovy||Setipinna phasa|
|Phopa chanda||ফোপাচান্দা||Native||Himalayan glassy perchlet||Pseudambassis baculis|
|Phutani punti||ফুটনিপুঁটি||Native||Spottedsail barb||Puntius phutunio|
|Poa (fish)||পোয়া||Native||Pama croaker||Otolithoides pama|
|Poia||পোয়া||Native||Gongota loach||Somileptus gongota|
|Potka||পটকা||Native||Green pufferfish||Tetraodon fluviatilis|
|Pug-headed mud skipper||বেলে||Native||Giant mudskipper||Periophthalmodon schlosseri|
|Puiya||পুয়া||Native||Burmese loach||Lepidocephalichthys berdmorei|
|Puiya||পুয়া||Native||Loktak loach||Lepidocephalichthys irrorata|
|Punti (fish)||পুঁটি||Native||Swamp barb||Puntius chola|
|Punti (fish)||পুঁটি||Native||Puntio barb||Puntius puntio|
|Putitor mohashoul||মহাশোল||Native||Golden mahseer||Tor putitora|
|Rajputi||রাজপুঁটি||introduced||Java barb||Barbonymus gonionotus|
|Ranga chanda||রাঙ্গাচান্দা||Native||Indian glassy fish||Parambassis ranga|
|Rata boura||রাটাবউরা||Native||Purple spaghetti-eel||Moringua raitaborua|
|Rita (fish)||রিটা||Native||Rita||Rita rita|
|River catfish||Native||Eutropiichthys vacha|
|Sapla pata||শাপলাপাটা||Native||Pale-edged stingray||Dasyatis zugei|
|Savon khorka||শভনখোরকা||native||Schistura savona|
|Shada ghonia||সাদাঘনিয়া||Native||Kuria labeo||Labeo gonius|
|Shankhachii||শানকাচি||Native||Banded eagle ray||Aetomylaeus nichofii|
|Shillong (fish)||শিলঙ্গ||Native||Silond catfish||Silonia silondia|
|Shingi||শিঙ্গঘি||Native||Stinging catfish||Heteropneustes fossilis|
|Shoul||শৌল||Native||Snakehead murrel||Channa striata|
|Shorpunti||শরপুঁটি||Native||Olive barb||Puntius sarana|
|Silver carp||সিলভারকার্প||introduced||Silver carp||Hypophthalmichthys molitrix|
|Snake eel||কুইচা||Native||Longfin snake-eel||Pisodonophis cancrivorus|
|Stripped dwarf catfish||Native||Mystus tengara|
|Suncush||শুনকুশ||Questionable||Dwarf whipray||Himantura walga|
|Suncush||শুনকুশ||Native||Cowtail stingray||Pastinachus sephen|
|Taki (fish)||টাকি||Native||Spotted snakehead||Channa punctata|
|Tapse||তপসি||Native||Mango Fish / Cichlid||Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii|
|Tara baim||তারাবাইম||Native||Lesser spiny eel||Macrognathus aculeatus|
|Tengra||টেংরা||Native||Day’s mystus||Mystus bleekeri|
|Tengra||টেংরা||Native||Striped dwarf catfish||Mystus vittatus|
|Tepa||ট্যাপা||Native||Ocellated pufferfish||Tetraodon cutcutia|
|Teri punti||টেরাপুঁনটি||Native||Onespot barb||Puntius terio|
|Tiashol||টিয়াশোল||Native||Barca snakehead||Channa barca|
|Tilapia||তেলাপিয়া||introduced||Mozambique tilapia||Oreochromis mossambicus|
|Tit punti||Native||Ticto barb||Puntius ticto|
|Titari||টাটারি||Native||River stone carp||Psilorhynchus sucatio|
|Tor mahseer||মহাশির||Native||Tor mahseer||Tor tor|
Economic Impact on Fishery Industry in Bangladesh
Both fisheries and aquaculture in Bangladesh play a major role in alleviating protein deficiency and malnutrition, in generating employment and foreign exchange earnings. Moreover, the fisheries sector contributes 5.10 percent, of the country’s export earnings, 4.91percent of its GDP and provides 63 percent of the national animal protein consumption (DoF, 2003.) Fish and fishery products are the country’s third largest export commodity contributing 5.10 percent of its exchange earnings, in 2002–2003 Bangladesh earned US$ 324 million of which shrimp alone contributed 72 percent of the total by quantity and 89 percent by value (DoF, 2003).
Fisheries and aquaculture play a major role in nutrition, employment and foreign exchange earnings with about 12 million people are associated with the fisheries sector, of which 1.4 million people rely exclusively on fisheries related activities (Shah, 2003). An estimated 9.5 million people (73 percent) are involved in subsistence fisheries on the country’s flood plains (Azim et al., 2002), the number of fishermen increases dramatically to 11 million between June to October each year. There are 3.08 million fish farmers, 1.28 million inland fishermen and 0.45 million fry collectors (fish and shrimp) in Bangladesh (DOF, 2003) and it is estimated that fisheries and related activities support more than 7 percent of the country’s population.
Currently, more than 600 000 people are engaged in shrimp farming activities (Karim, 2003), it is also estimated that around 14 000 fishermen (2.5 fishers per ha water body) are directly involved and 70 000 rural people are the direct beneficiaries of oxbow lake fisheries (Hasan, 2001a; Hasan and Talukdar, 2004). In both aquaculture and fisheries activities it is the male members of the family who carry out almost all of the work in Bangladesh, very recently however a few women have been encouraged to participate through the motivation of NGOs and some private entrepreneurs. Thengamara Mahila Sabuj Sangha is a woman’s NGO which is actively engaged in aquaculture development activities.
Total inland and marine catches as estimated by the Directorate of Fisheries (DOF) will be
4.81% higher in FY 2006-07 (2.44 million metric tons) than that in the previous year. The
fishery sector is likely to grow by 3.99% in FY 2006-07 compared with 3.91% in FY
2005-06. At constant prices the contribution of fishery sub-sector is 4.3% to the total GDP of
FY 2006-07. In FY 2008-09 estimated growth rate is 4.01% which is lower than the previous FY 2007-08, 4.18
Problems and Recommendations
Lack of Capital:
Problem: Two-third people of Bangladesh are involved in agricultural activities. Fisheries are one of them and most profitable sector. Most of the fishermen are poor and illiterate. Economical problem is the main obstacle in fishing industry. They do not provide enough capital. Financial institutions do not give them adequate loan on possible condition. That’s why they are unable to provide the necessary elements and they cannot develop in this sector.
Solution: Government and financial institutions such as Bank, leasing company, insurance, NGO etc. can solve this capital problem by giving loans in short condition.
If fishermen use their money in right sector in right time, they will overcome this problem.
Problem:Now-a-dayspolitical unrest such as hartal, blockade, strike, demolishing vehicle are causes many problems in transportation. As a result fisherman cannot provide fish to customers at the right time. As well as necessary fish transportation vehicle cannot reach the target place. Somefisheries are situated in rural areas where road’s condition is very bad. As a result fishermen cannot get enough help to enrich their fisheries. As a result, economic downward has increased.
Solution: All kinds of political parties can solve this problem to remove all kinds of political unrest and they can ensure batter political environment in our country. As well as government can solve this problem to construct new roads and reconstruct old damage roads in rural or urban areas.
Problem: Storage system is another important instrument of fishing industries. As fishes have to get rotten, it has to storage backup. If it does not prove at the right time, it got rotten. And sometimes fishes have to stock to export. But the storage of fishing system is not well developed in our country. As a result, the fisherman gets losses in this sector.
Solution: To solve this problem, government must be constructed many cold storage. The marketing processes of fish need to be developed day by day.
Shortage of skilled manpower:
Problem: Bangladesh is an over populated country. There have many workers but skilled workers are insufficient for any industry. Fishery industry needs more skilled manpower but our country’s workers are so dull about this industry. So it’s a big problem in our fishery industry.
Solution: If we develop our workers efficiency to provide proper training then we can overcome this problem. As well as proper government step can solve this problem to provide various professional training.
Lack of proper training:
Problem:In our fishing industry Most of the workers are illiterate. They do not have sufficient knowledge about fishing. Lacking of proper training, they cannot enrich this industry.There is no necessary step to fishery industry worker from our government. For this they cannot provide proper output. So our fishery industry cannot get batter placement in GDP.
Solution: To solve this problem, government must need to arrange various kinds of fisheries industry related training in rural areas for fishermen. Besides government organization, privet agencies can arrange professional development training for fishermen.
Impact of climate change:
Problem: Every year fishermen have to face great problems for the reasons of climate change. It destroys many fisheries and hatcheries every yearand will have serious consequences for the hundreds of millions of people who depend on fishing for their livelihoods.
According to the United Nation Food and Agriculture Organization (FAD), “This change will impact the biological economic and social aspects of many fisheries. Both positive and negative impacts are expected”.
Solution:If all kinds of people conscious about various kinds of pollution then we can minimize the impact of climate change.
Problem: Electricity is the most important elements of our fisheries industry. But it is not available in our country. Because of shortage electricity, theborne of fishes cannot survive. As a result the output of fish production is fall.
Solution: If government produces much electricity, andreduce corruption in electricity sector we can overcome this problem. If we save electricity in our everyday life, we can save much electricity.
Problem: Water pollution is a problem with the fishing industries because when factories and such dump or spill chemicals into lakes, rivers, streams etc….they can kill fish and underwater plant life, Which can be pretty serious because the rivers and such can lead to the oceans seas, Which will end up killing even more stuff. If this pollution continues at current rate, fishing industries in many nations will be severely damaged.
Solution: To reduce water pollution, industrial waste damping must be stopped. If government implements some rules against water pollution then we can protect our fishery industry.
Problem: Diseases are the foremost problem of fishery industries. Every year many fishes have to die for the reasons of various fish diseases. Some important diseases of fishes are:-Columnaris, Gill Disease, Ick, Dropsy, Fin-rot, Fungal, Infections, Hole in the Head, Pop-Eye, Cloudy Eye, Swim Bladder Disease, Fish Lice, Nematode Worms, Water Quality, Induced Diseases. Because of these diseases, fishery industries get hampered.
Solutions: To solve this problem, we take necessary treatment against various kinds’ of diseases. The fishermen have to know the cause of diseases and then treatment it. Understand that while salt is frequently used as a treatment/preventative for sick fish, it is no guarantee. It can even be dangerous to some fish (for example, cory catfish).There is nothing more important than maintaining a proper environment (temperature, water quality, aeration).
Bangladesh is a densely populated country of 147 570 km2 with a population of 130 million people. It is fortunate in having an extensive water resource in the form of ponds, natural depressions (haors and beels), lakes, canals, rivers and estuaries covering an area of 4.56 million ha (DoF, 2005).
Bangladesh is one of the world’s leading inland fisheries producer with a production of 1 646 819 tonnes during 2003–4, with marine catch total of 455 601 tonnes and a total production from aquaculture of 914 752 tonnes during 2003–4. Bangladesh’s total fish production for the year totaled above 2.1 million tonnes (DoF, 2005). FAO (2005) ranked Bangladesh as sixth largest aquaculture producing country with its estimated production of 856 956 tonnes in 2003 (FAO, 2005). Aquaculture accounted for about 43.5 percent of the total fish production during 2003–4, with inland open water fisheries contributed 34.8 percent (DoF, 2005).
The present per capita annual fish consumption in Bangladesh stands at about 14 kg/year against a recommended minimum requirement of 18 kg/year; hence there is still need to improve fish consumption in the country.
Fisheries in Bangladesh are diverse, there are about 795 native species of fish and shrimp in the fresh and marine waters of Bangladesh and 12 exotic species that have been introduced. In addition, there are 10 species of pearl bearing bivalves, 12 species of edible tortoise and turtle, 15 species of crab and 3 species of lobster.
The Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock (MoFL), Department of Fisheries (DoF), Bangladesh Fisheries Development Corporation (BFDC) and the Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute (BFRI) are the main organisations responsible for aquaculture and its development. Universities, organisations within other ministries and local and international NGOs are also involved in this area.